Ongoing developments in molecular fabrication, computation, sensors and motors will enable the manufacturing of nanorobots – nanoscale biomolecular machine systems. The present work constitutes a novel simulation approach, intended to be a platform for the design and research of nanorobots control. The simulation approach involves a combined and multi-scale view of the scenario. Fluid dynamics numerical simulation is used to construct the nanorobotic environment, and an additional simulation models nanorobot sensing, control and behavior. We discuss some of the most promising possibilities for nanorobotics applications in biomedical problems, paying a special attention to a stenosed coronary artery case.  Keywords: Biomedical computing, control systems, coronary stenosis, mobile robots, nanomedicine, nanorobots, nanotechnology.


This paper describes a study for developing nanorobotics control design to deal with many of the challenging problems in biomedical applications. The problem we consider here is mainly focused on nanomedicine [10], where the biomedical interventions and manipulations are automatically performed by nanorobots. While these nanorobots cannot be fabricated yet, theoretical and simulation studies defining design strategies, capabilities and limitations, will supply  better comprehension of nanorobots behavior and the nanoworld [4][5].  In recent years, the potential of a new interdisciplinary field of science has motivated many governments to devote significant resources to nanotechnology . The U.S. National Science Foundation has launched a program in “Scientific Visualization” [15], in part to harness supercomputers in picturing the nanoworld. A 1 trillion US$ market consisting of devices and systems with some embedded nanotechnology is projected by 2015 [8]. The research firm DisplaySearch predicts rapid market growth of organic light emitting diodes, from 84 million US$ in 2002


Applications of nanorobots are expected to provide remarkable possibilities.  An interesting utilization of nanorobots may be their attachment to transmigrating inflammatory cells or white blood cells, to reach inflamed tissues and assist in their healing process [3]. Nanorobots will be applied in chemotherapy to combat cancer through precise chemical dosage administration, and a similar approach could be taken to enable nanorobots to deliver anti-HIV drugs. Such drug-delivery nanorobots have been termed “pharmacytes” by Freitas [10]. Nanorobots could be used to process specific chemical reactions in the human body as ancillary devices for injured organs. Monitoring and controlling nutrient concentrations in the human body [5], including glucose levels in diabetic patients will be a possible application of medical nanorobots. Nanorobots might be used to seek and break kidney stones. Another important possible feature of medical nanorobots will be the capability to locate atherosclerotic lesions in stenosed blood vessels, particularly in the coronary circulation, and treat them either mechanically, chemically or pharmacologically .  The coronary arteries are one of the most common sites for the localization of atherosclerotic plaques, although they could be found in other regions as well.

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Nanorobot for Brain Aneurysm

1. IntroductionThe research and development of nanorobots with embed-ded nanobiosensors and actuators is considered to provide anew possibility to provide health specialists with new high-precision tools (Frist 2005). In the same way that the develop-ment of microtechnology in the 1980s has led to new medicalinstrumentation, emerging nanotechnologies, such as the man-ufacturing of nanoelectronics (Chau et al. 2007), will similarlypermit further advances in medicine, providing efficient meth-ods and new devices for patient treatment

The use of microdevices in surgery and medical treatmentsis a reality which has brought many improvements in clinicalprocedures in recent years (Elder et al. 2008). For example,among other medical instrumentation, catheterization has beenused successfully as an important methodology for intracranialsurgery (Ikeda et al. 2006). Now the advent of biomolecularscience and new manufacturing techniques is helping to ad-vance the miniaturization of devices from microelectronics tonanoelectronics (Andrews 2007).

2. Equipment Prototyping

The medical nanorobot should comprise a set of IC blocks asan application-specific IC (ASIC). The architecture has to ad-dress functionality, providing asynchronous interface for theantenna, sensor, and a logic nanoprocessor, which should beable to trigger actuator and activate ultrasound communicationwhen appropriate (Figure 2). The main parameters used for thenanorobot architecture and control activation, as well as therequired technology background that can advance manufactur-ing hardware for molecular machines, are described next. Asa practical rule, the number of nanodevices to integrate intoa nanorobot should be kept small to ensure that the hardwaresize is suitable for inside-body application

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